When republishing on the web a hyperlink back to the original content source URL must be included. Kassite kings ruled for about 400 years. The Kassites: The History and Legacy of the Ancient Civilization that Ruled the Babylonian Empire after Hammurabi and the First Babylonian Dynasty examines the impact the Kassites had on the region. Cush here probably refers, not to Ethiopia, but to the land of the Kassites in the mountains of east of Mesopotamia. A number of the Amarna Letters are correspondence between the respective rulers (including 14 between the Pharaoh and the Kassite ruler). K. Balkan (1986, pp. It is mostly translated as "Ur of the Chaldeans." The problem with "Chaldeans" is that it is a late word used in the Neo-Babylonian times. Running a website with millions of readers every month is expensive. 229-244, Brinkman, J. Did Jesus or The New Testament Authors Quote from The Apocryphal Books? The Incredible Bible - First in the BKA Series. Kassite. One interesting aspect of these letters is that they are written in Akkadian cuneiform and not Egyptian. I read the Bible four times as a child I thought I believed different from everyone else. It is important to know that many of the cities of Canaan that were mentioned in the Bible have now undergone excavations. 329 f.): ERN u-q-mu-[na(? Following this event, his grandfather Aur-uballi invaded Babylonia to place Kurigalzu II (1327-03 BCE) on the throne. 6969, Albrecht Goetze, "The Kassites and Near Eastern Chronology,", This page was last edited on 5 February 2023, at 22:04. The commonly held opinion that they originated from the Zagros mountains east of Babylonia (see, e.g., Balkan, 1986, p. 8; Heinz, 1995, p. 167) is based on the assumption that their geographical distribution before they took over the Babylonian alluvium was the same as their distribution after the demise of the Kassite rule in Babylonia. (Non-dynastic usurpers17351701 BCE) The Kassites strove to be integrated in the culture of the conquered land. Kraus on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, Studia Francisci Scholten memoriae dicata 5, Leiden, 1982, pp. Babylonia under the Sealand and Kassite Dynasties, edited by Susanne Paulus and Tim Clayden, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2020, pp. The Kissites used their alliances to help repel enemies and to establish a trade. This form resembles the much later Greek name Kossaioii, Lat. 925, Yaln, Serdar. 4 Where did the Hittites live in ancient Anatolia? Twenty-fourth Dynasty of EgyptTefnakht Bakenranef, (Sargonid dynasty)Tiglath-Pileser Shalmaneser Marduk-apla-iddina II Sargon Sennacherib Marduk-zakir-shumi II Marduk-apla-iddina II Bel-ibni Ashur-nadin-shumi Nergal-ushezib Mushezib-Marduk Esarhaddon Ashurbanipal Ashur-etil-ilani Sinsharishkun Sin-shumu-lishir Ashur-uballit II, Seleucid Empire: Seleucus I Antiochus I Antiochus II Seleucus II Seleucus III Antiochus III Seleucus IV Antiochus IV Antiochus V Demetrius I Alexander III Demetrius II Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes. They are well represented among the great landowners. After Babylon came within the Kassite sphere of control its city-god, Marduk was absorbed into the Kassite pantheon. Maps are essential for any serious Bible study. On the whole, it cannot be proven that the Kassites living in Babylonia had an essentially different social organization from that of the Babylonians (Sassmannshausen, 2001, p. 150). Christians have historically spoken of the Bible as being divided into the "Old" and the "New" testaments. Remember that Hebrews existed before the Egyptian captivity. Study on the Synchronistic King List from Ashur. [28][29] A typical treaties include the EgyptianHittite peace treaty (c.1259 BC) and the treaty between the Kassite ruler Karaindash and the Assyrian ruler Ashur-bel-nisheshu (c. 1410 BC). 2, 2004, pp. [37] According to the Assyrian Synchronistic Chronicle, which is not considered reliable, the last Kassite king, Enlil-nadin-ahi, was taken to Susa and imprisoned there in 1155 BC, where he also died. 219-45. ''Elamites and Kassites in the Persian Gulf'', Journal of Near Eastern Studies, LXV/2, 111-119.Richardson, S. (2005). Kassite, member of an ancient people known primarily for establishing the second, or middle, Babylonian dynasty; they were believed (perhaps wrongly) to have originated in the Zagros Mountains of Iran. MacGinnis, J. The Kassites first appeared during the reign of Samsu-iluna (1749-1712 BC), son of Hammurabi of the First Babylonian Dynasty and after being defeated by Babylon, moved to control the city-state of Mari. More could be said about archaeology and the conquest of Canaan but for the sake of this post I will not include everything. During the time of the Canaanite conquest the most profound source of extra-biblical evidence is from a cache of letters called the Amarna letters. Idem, Peoples from the Iranian Plateau in Babylonia during the Second Millennium B.C., Iran 25, 1987, pp. Adad-shuma-usur had the longest reign that lasted for about 30 years. [51] It is found in many Moesoptamia cities including Eridu and Tell Khaiber. 19-38. [7], Documentation of the Kassite period depends heavily on the scattered and disarticulated tablets from Nippur, where thousands of tablets and fragments have been excavated. But how can people not see Ahmose named her son Ahmose because she pulled him from the water. World History Encyclopedia is a non-profit organization. 49, no. and ruled the area for 576 years. It is thought that the Kassites originated as tribal groups in the Zagros Mountains to the north-east of Babylonia. Paper, 1956, p. 252). When Burnaburia II died, his son Kara-harda succeeded him but was assassinated in a rebellion (1328 BCE). Almamori, Haider Oraibi and Bartelmus, Alexa. The specific purpose and intent of this entry is to present research on biblical synchronisms; references to the same or supposedly same historical events from multiple cultures. Ancient Jerusalem - Interactive Study of Jerusalem with Map. The anonymity of most of the Kassites in late Old Babylonian sources is not greatly remedied by the new occurrences from the unpublished texts evaluated by Richardson (2002, pp. The Midianites were a biblical people who occupied territory east of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea, and southward through the desert wilderness of the Arabah. 39:1-45:5 - the most detailed account in the Old Testament of Babylon conquest of Jerusalem and its aftermath. I. M. Diakonoff and S. M. Kashkai, Geographical Names According to Urartian Texts, Rpertoire Gographique des Textes Cuniformes 9, Wiesbaden, 1979. 1/2, 1981, pp. A. Armstrong, S. W. Cole, and V. G. Gurzadyan, Dating the Fall of Babylon: A Reappraisal of Second-Millennium Chronology (a Joint Ghent-Chicago-Harvard Project), Mesopotamian History and Environment 2: Memoirs 4. However, Huber (1999-2000, p. 289b) doubts the mere three-year interval. Gezer has been captured; American Journal of Archaeology, vol. Its about events 700-1000 years later. And so it was, when Israel had sown, that the Midianites came up, and the Amalekites, and the children of the east, even they came up against . ISBN 0-521-563585. pp. K. De Graef, Les trangers dans les textes palobabyloniens tardifs de Sippar (Abi-eu-Samsuditana): 1ire partie: Sur les inconnus connus: Cassites, Elamites, Sutens, Suens, Gutens et Subarens, Akkadica 111, 1998, pp. 11119, Pedersn, Olof. 165-74. "Studies Concerning the Kassite Period Ekur of Nippur: Construction History and Finds". Both sectors were based on the redistributive principle characteristic of Mesopotamian household organization (see Edens, 1994, p. 211). 351-58. 1750-1650 BC), and next an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1650 BC. Foreign Relations of Babylonia from 1600 to 625 B. C.: The Documentary Evidence. American Journal of Archaeology, vol. Recall that in the first five books of the Bible idolatry was a major issue. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Other. https://www.worldhistory.org/kassite/. 535-545, Taha Baqir, "Iraq Government Excavations at 'Aqar Qf. 224 f.). J. Learn facts that you cant learn just from reading the Bible World History Encyclopedia. Iraq Museum, Terracotta plaque of a seated goddess, from Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. ; Pientka, 1998, pp. There are also a number of building inscriptions, all but one written in Sumerian unlike the Akkadian typically used by the Kassites. The Babylonian empire founded by Hammurabi was overthrown by the Kassites (whose origins are unknown) in 1595 BCE, the conquest following a Hittite invasion that sacked Babylon but did not stay to rule over it.Over the following centuries, the Kassites successfully . Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. : The Documentary Evidence, AJA 76, 1972, pp. Babylonia under the Sealand and Kassite Dynasties, edited by Susanne Paulus and Tim Clayden, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2020, pp. "17. Before entering Mesopotamia they were illiterate mountain people speaking a language that is not known today. 73, No. A. Brinkman (1976-80, p. 465a) and W. De Smet (1990, p. 11) point out that the earliest evidence for Kassites is from northern Babylonia and west of it, viz., the Middle Euphrates and Alalah VII (see Brinkman, 1976-80, p. 466b). Some Rights Reserved (2009-2023) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. . ("Year in which Samsu-iluna the king (defeated) the totality of the strength of the army / the troops of the Kassites"). There was an intensive connection between the ruling dynasty and the city of Nippur. Books The cities of Ashkelon and Gezer were Philistine territory that werent fully conquered by Israel. The fall of Babylon is reported by a number of ancient sources, including the Cyrus Cylinder, the Greek historian Herodotus, as well as a number of books in the Old Testament. [44][45], Note that the relative order of Kadashman-Turgu and Kadashman-Enlil II have been questioned. A man named Tobiah the Ammonite is mentioned in Nehemiah 2:19 at the end of the Old Testament period (400s BC). Idem, Beitrge zur Verwaltung und Gesellschaft Babyloniens in der Kassitenzeit, Baghdader Forschungen 21, Mainz, 2001. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously. Babylonia under the Kassites 1, edited by Alexa Bartelmus and Katja Sternitzke, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2017, pp. 464-73. Among them were Abraham's Horites ancestors who descended from Kush, the grandson of the great Proto-Saharan ruler Noah. W. Eilers, rev. When and how did the Twelve Apostles die? This period is marked by a building hiatus at Babylon, similar to the one after the fall of the First Babylonian dynasty. A. Brinkman, Kassiten (Kass), RLA, vol. Administration and Society in Kassite Babylonia. Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. Idem, Forced laborers in the Middle Babylonian period, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 32, 1980, pp. The Kassites (/ksats/) were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1595 BC and until c. 1155 BC (middle chronology). Mesopotamian History and They were conquered by Alexander the Great but later regained their independence. 93, no. See also IRAN vii. They reportedly dominated this territory from roughly the twelfth through the tenth centuries B.C.E. 113-118. (2012). The canal Habur-ibal-buga (see Balkan, 1954, p. 104) is recorded in a document from Terqa which is dated to King Hammurapih (perhaps 16th century BCE, i.e., at the beginning of the Middle Babylonian period; see Podany, 2002, pp. Important sources for reconstructing the Kassite Dynasty are kudurrus. Mesopotamian Pottery. 41, no. 415 f.). Gasche et al. They even burn their sons and daughters in the fire as sacrifices to their gods. The Kassites entered into Babylon after the Old Babylonian Empire and established their rule around 1531 B.C. Idem, Sex, Age and Physical Condition Designations for Servile Laborers in the Middle Babylonian Period, in G. van Driel, T. J. H. Krispijn, M. Stol, and K. R. Veenhof, eds., Zikir umim: Assyriological Studies Presented to F.R. The king at the time of Joshuas invasion was Adoni-zedek (Joshua 10:1-3), which would have had to come after Abdi-Heba since Joshua overtook southern and northern Palestine (Joshua 10-11). The Karun river runs a course of over 500 miles. Given that their existence was before Joshua and the Canaan conquest, it is difficult to label these rebels as Hebrews specifically from Egypt. It is either anachronistic, or a poor translation. The Interpreter's Commentary on the Bible p. 5. Kish in the Kassite Period (c. 1650-1150 B.C. The Kassites left no cultural impact in Babylonia. 55 f., 231, 325 ff., 336 ff.). The Early Kassite Period". 233-42. Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. Under the later Kassite kings political authority was weakened as peripheral provinces detached themselves from effective state control (see Brinkman, 1963, pp. Like the Sumeriancs, no one knows for sure where they came from. The number of Kassite appellatives is restricted (slightly more than 60 vocables, mostly referring to colors, parts of the chariot, irrigation terms, plants, and titles). "16. B. Landsberger, Assyrische Knigsliste und dunkles Zeitalter, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 8, 1954, pp. The rulers of Allabria, Hubukia, and Ginguhtu, regions in the direction of present-day West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, bore Kassite names (Ianzi-buria, Ianz, and Ursi respectively). "The Kassites of Babylonia: A Re-examination of an Ethnic Identity". The mosaic glass beakers are thought to have been heirlooms, possibly for ritual use the find spot being a temple. Following Hammurabi, the Kassites took over Elam and reigned till around . The Kassites abandoned their own culture after a couple of generations of dominance, allowing themselves to be absorbed into Babylonian civilization. 3 Where did the Kassite people originally come from? The Kassites (/ksats/) were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology). They ruled for over 400 years. "Ethiopian" was a Greek term for black-skinned peoples generally, often applied to Kush (which was well known to the Hebrews and often mentioned in the Hebrew Bible). A 300-year Middle Eastern Dark lasted from 1157 to 883 B.C. 44 f., 59). [55] Other similar glass dated 1500 BC was found at Tell al-Rimah. "Babylon in the Second Millennium BCE: New Insights on the Transitions from Old Babylonian to Kassite and Isin II Periods". Easily See 6017 Years of Biblical and World History Together! ''Some Shared Traditions Between Hana and the Kassites'', In Crossing Boundaries and Linking Horizons: Studies in Honor of Michael C. Astour on His 80th Birthday, 417-432.Potts, D. T. (2006). However, the river is only 175 . 131149, 1949, O. R. Gurney, Further Texts from Dur-Kurigalzu, Sumer, vol. Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I (1243 - 1207 B.C.) "Kassitisch und Hurro-Urartisch. What type of medicine do you put on a burn? Armstrong, James A. bukaum), who received envoys of the king of Halaba (very probably Aleppo) in his encampment, was perhaps a contemporary of Samsiluna (see Podany, 2002, p. 49). Roman Empire Map - 38, no. After the Hittites' surgeon Babylon, the Kassites, coming from the North, North-East, settled in Babylon and founded their dynasty by Agum. Brinkman, 1986). Yanoam, is not known (maybe Yaknoam). 20712, Brinkman, J. Idem, Studies in Babylonian Feudalism of the Kassite Period, tr. The first-millennium Babylonian King Lists assign the Kassite dynasty the longest rule of all the other dynasties who ruled Babylonia: 36 kings who ruled for 576 years and nine months. Contemporary Kassite records are not numerous. Iraq Museum, Limestone relief of a male figure from Tell al-Rimah, Iraq. 287-90. The opening of Joshua, chapter 10, describes the King of Jerusalem being afraid because of the capturing of Ai and Jericho by Joshua during battle. June 14, 2022; pros and cons of stem cell therapy for knees . Puzur-Sin Ashur-dugul Ashur-apla-idi Nasir-Sin Sin-namir Ipqi-Ishtar Adad-salulu Adasi It is likely that the already troublesome environment of the land assisted the Israelites in their task of taking over the land. A.. "1. Nearing the end of the letter, the king states that if no archers are sent, then Jerusalem will fall to the Hapiru (same as Apiru). 234-37; idem, 1984, pp. I; Chronicles conserning early babylonian Studies in Eastern History, II. Ancient Orient Museum, Lapis Lazuli fragment with building inscriptions, Kassite, from Iraq. Sassmannshausen (2001, p. 137) infers that they were subjected to Kassite inspectors. The Journal of Ancient EgyptianInterconnections makes a very strong argument that it is not representing Israel but the field is quite divided on this piece. 3000-323 BC., Oxford, 2003. Why are Genesis 10 and 11 "significant" chapters? Kassite, member of an ancient people known primarily for establishing the second, or middle, Babylonian dynasty; they were believed (perhaps wrongly) to have originated in the Zagros Mountains of Iran. The Kassites retained power for about four hundred years (until 1155 BC). The Kassites retained power for about four hundred years (until 1155 BC). In tablet #149, Abi-Milku praises Pharaoh and compares him to Sun god. "18. 10 f., is cautious and allows for the alternative Ka-a-i-i Bi-ma-ti-i, thereby keeping Bimat apart from the Kassites). Bearded men, religious symbols, horned quadrupeds, and fauna are often shown in these images. The ancient Near East: historical sources in translation. The texts are unclear about who the Apiru/Hapiru/Habiru people are. Many endure rather than enjoy reading these two chapters. We can learn about the society where the ancient Israelites, and later Jesus and the Apostles, lived through the modern discoveries that provide us clues. The opinion of W. Eilers (1957-58, pp. The Assyrians were great warriors. Our publication has been reviewed for educational use by Common Sense Education, Internet Scout (University of Wisconsin), Merlot (California State University), OER Commons and the School Library Journal. 31217, Levine, Louis D. "Geographical Studies in the Neo-Assyrian ZagrosI." Mid-12th Century. 88-124, Clayden, Tim. First mentioned in Elamite texts of the late 3rd millennium bc, they penetrated into Mesopotamia in the 2nd millennium, were repulsed by Hammurabis son, but secured holdings within the Tigris-Euphrates valley on the northern frontiers of Babylonia and later established the second Babylonian dynasty. Kassites (among others) were included in the workforces (mostly agricultural laborers): individuals defined as Kassites (Ka) or bearing Kassite names appear in ration lists. The city of Babylon had been a city-state in Mesopotamia for many years. Some kudurrus are kept in the Louvre in Paris and others in the National Museum of Iraq. Kings with Kassite names appeared on the middle Euphrates during the 17th century BCE. Kassites stayed in Babylonia, but their main concentration was the central Zagros northeast of Babylonia, notably in Namri and Bt-Hamban. 469 f.; Dosch and Deller, 1981), as well as in Middle Assyrian documents (see Brinkman, 1976-80, p. 470; cf. The Canaan has been plundered into every sort of woe: The Absurd History Of Papal Edicts Concerning Jews, How Well Do You Know Your Bible? Early on, refurbishments were conducted of the various religious and administrative buildings, the first of these datable to Kurigalzu I. 04 Mar 2023. 251-54. 479-491, Potts, D. T. Elamites and Kassites in the Persian Gulf. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. Charpin, 1995). Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. The inscription is believed to be between 1400 1200 BCE, right around the time where Israel was in captivity or shortly after leaving captivity. World History Publishing is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Copyright 2023 Wisdom-Advices | All rights reserved. First Century Israel Map - 86 ff.). the Kassites, take over this region, and you can see them . "10. Political Interactions between Kassite Babylonia and Assyria, Egypt and atti during the Amarna Age". Iran 12.1 (1974): 99-124. 135-38. Why Did Christ Ride a Donkey on His Triumphant Entry? Judges 8:33 records that after Gideon died, the Israelites turned from the Lord and worshiped Baals and made Baal-berith their God. 15-26. Slavery was common, but not the dominant factor of the workforce. J. Eidem, The Shemshra Tablets 2: The Administrative Texts, the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter 15, Copenhagen, 1982. Babylonia under the Kassites 2, edited by Alexa Bartelmus and Katja Sternitzke, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2017, pp. Schneider, Thomas (2003). [38], The annals of the Assyrian king Sennacherib detail that on his second, eastern, campaign of 702 BC he campaigned against the land of the Kassites, that being along the along the Diyala River between the Jebel Hamrin and the Darband-i-Khan. Hittite, member of an ancient Indo-European people who appeared in Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium bce; by 1340 bce they had become one of the dominant powers of the Middle East. 146-164, Brinkman, John Anthony. About 200 additional lexical elements can be gained by the analysis of the more numerous anthroponyms, toponyms, theonyms, and horse names used by the Kassites (see Balkan, 1954, passim; Jaritz, 1957 is to be used with caution). Adding the years given by the King List to that date would place the beginning of the dynasty in the 18th century BCE, when rulers of the Hammurabi dynasty controlled Babylon. 225, 1977, pp. Their direct or indirect ties to the Middle Euphrates region enhanced their communication with the Hittites who controlled parts of northern Syria, so they might have been instrumental in enabling the temporary conquest of Babylon by the Hittite king Telipinu, who put an end to Hammurabis dynasty in 1595 BCE and eventually gave way for the Kassite rule in Babylonia. 14151155 BCE." The interest of the boundary stones for modern scholars is not only economic and religious but also artistic. Toronto, Buffalo, and London, 1990. The first Kassite dynast who ruled Babylonia was Burnaburia I, the tenth king of the Babylonian King List (Brinkman, 1976-80, p. 467), but the possibility that his predecessor, Agum-kakrime (Agum II), already controlled Babylon cannot be excluded (see Podany, 2002, p. 59). The Chaldeans in the Bible The Chaldeans may be best known from the Bible. 131 f.). "The Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu Burun: 1986 Campaign." Download Free PDF View PDF. (1998, p. 83) advocate a lower chronology, thereby narrowing the gap between the end of the Old Babylonian period and, ca. In addition to their original members and dependents, both sectors absorbed prisoners of war, fugitive foreigners. According to the accounts in Genesis, and the dates that follow throughout the entirety of the era of Kings and Judges, the Exodus occurred in 1312bce, which is 2448 years from the creation of Adam. ), in O. Lipschits and J. Blenkinsopp, eds., Judah and Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period, Winona Lake, 2003, pp. 185f. This discovery was made by the same archaeologist (Ludwig Borchardt) that discovered the Nefertiti bust and helped excavate the Amarna region. F. H. Weissbach, he Kissa, in Pauly-Wissowa, RE 21, 1921, pp. Gasche et al. v. Brinkman, J. The first Jewish king, King Saul, defeated the Ammonites and made them his servants. K. Balkan, Kassitenstudien, 1: Die Sprache der Kassiten, American Oriental Series 37, New Haven, 1954. The city was built by Kurigalzu I (probably in the first quarter of the 15th century BCE). Abraham was from the city of Ur according to Genesis 11:31 above. (2015). There were 36 kings in this dynasty ruling 576 years and 9 months. The Kassites: The History and Legacy of the Ancient Civilization that Ruled the Babylonian Empire after Hammurabi and the First Babylonian Dynasty eBook : Charles River Editors: Amazon.co.uk: Kindle Store The Worst Televangelist Product Scams Of All Time. 4 (Dec., 1991), pp. During subsequent raids, Elamite troops stole numerous monuments from sanctuaries across southern Mesopotamia and carried them back to Susa, contributing to . Genesis 2:14 gives the location of the Garden of Eden. Possible traces of Kassites in Iranian nomenclature are negligible, for instance, Kagn, Kaakn < Kaaka@n, i.e., possibly "land of the Kassites" in Iran (see Eilers, 1957-58, p. 135). Idem, Kossaioi, in Pauly-Wissowa, RE 22, 1922, pp. His body was never found and also coincidentally there was no chariots available for other wars for quite a while after that. [18] Often situated on the surface, many were found early and made their way to museums around the world. ), whose kings were native Babylonians. 177-189, Krebernik, M., and Seidl, U. This temple was probably one of the most important institutions of Kassite Babylonia. 32, no. Cite This Work The problem is that there are several places called Ur. Kassite, member of an ancient people known primarily for establishing the second, or middle, Babylonian dynasty; they were believed (perhaps wrongly) to have Kassite, member of an ancient people known primarily for establishing the second, or middle, Babylonian dynasty; they were believed (perhaps wrongly) to have originated in the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Idem, rev. 2, pp. 31-45, 47-73, 106-33. Balkan (1986, pp. Our collection of maps are simple and they are free. The Kassite kings were called, by themselves and their colleagues in other Near Eastern states, kings of the land of Kar(an)dunia, the latter being a term for Babylonia that may have been Kassite in origin (del Monte and Tischler, 1978, pp. The attempt of A. Ancillotti (1981) to demonstrate that Kassite is originally an Indo-Aryan language is not convincing. 471-589. The Kassites: The History and Legacy of the Ancient Civilization that Hittites, Kassites and Mitanni Children's Middle Eastern History Books, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. They include red, black and brown Nubians, pre-dynastic lower Nilotes, and the Ainu/Annu. The Kassites were a warlike people that invaded Babylon during the 16th century B.C. The governor of Nippur was in charge of an economic organization, which collected numerous agricultural deliveries and imposts from broad parts of Babylonia. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. Volume 2 Kardunia. SeventeenthDynasty, (15001100 BCE)Kidinuid dynastyIgehalkid dynastyUntash-Napirisha, Twenty-first Dynasty of EgyptSmendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II, Twenty-third Dynasty of EgyptHarsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini